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Agreement between Spain and Portugal

By januar 23, 2022No Comments

On June 7, 1494, Spain and Portugal agreed to establish the boundary between their respective domains along a meridian 370 miles west of the Cape Verde Islands. They created two areas in which they would have a monopoly on discovery, navigation and trade. Quite quickly, however, the Iberian claims of exclusive access to certain territories raised a number of difficulties and disputes characteristic of the period when Europeans were adapting to an increasingly well-known global space. On June 7, 1494, the governments of Spain and Portugal approved the Treaty of Tordesillas, named after the city in Spain where it was founded. The Treaty of Tordesillas divided the American “New World” between the two superpowers. Spain and Portugal divided the New World by drawing a north-south demarcation line in the Atlantic Ocean, about 100 miles (555 kilometers, or 345 miles) west of the Cape Verde Islands, off the coast of Northwest Africa, and then controlled by Portugal. All countries to the east of this line (about 46 degrees, 37 minutes to the west) were claimed by Portugal. All the countries to the west of this line were claimed by Spain. Spain and Portugal acceded to the treaty without much conflict between the two, although the demarcation line was moved an additional 270 miles (about 1500 kilometers, or 932 miles) further west in 1506, allowing Portugal to claim the east coast of present-day Brazil. The results of this treaty are still visible throughout America today.

For example, all Latin American countries are mainly Spanish-speaking countries, with the sole exception of Brazil, where Portuguese is the national language. This is because the eastern tip of Brazil lies to the east of the demarcation line established in the Treaty of Tordesillas and was where most of the Portuguese colonization took place. The borders of modern Brazil have expanded since the expansion of the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1506. Spain and Portugal were the only signatories to the treaty because at the time they were the only European powers to establish a presence in America. The treaty did not take into account the future claims of the British, the French and other European superpowers of their respective eras. The British, French, and Dutch empires did not claim parts of America until years after the Treaty of Tordesillas, but more importantly, the Treaty of Tordesillas completely ignored the millions of people already living in established communities in America. The treaty stipulated that not all countries with a “Christian king” should be colonized. Of course, Christianity had not yet spread widely in America at that time. This meant that Spain and Portugal could claim virtually any land they could conquer in America, unless the land was already claimed by a (European) Christian ruler under the terms of their treaty. The resulting conquest and colonization proved disastrous for civilizations such as the Incas, Taino, and Aztecs, as well as for thousands of other communities across the Americas. On January 13, 1750, King John V of Portugal and Ferdinand VI of Spain signed the Treaty of Madrid, in which both parties sought to establish the borders between Brazil and Spanish America, and admitted that the Treaty of Tordesillas, as envisioned in 1494, had been replaced and was considered null and void.

Spain was recognized as having sovereignty over the Philippines, while Portugal would preserve the Amazon basin area. Portugal would abandon the colony of Sacramento on the north bank of the Plata River in present-day Uruguay and at the same time receive the territory of the Seven Missions. [47] Don Ferdinand and Dona Isabella, by the grace of God King and Queen of Castile, León, Aragon, Sicily, Granada, Toledo, Valencia, Galiciaj Mallorca Seville, Sardinia, Cordoba, Corsica, Murcia, Jaen, Algarve, Algeciras, Gibraltar and the Canary Islands, Count and Countess of Barcelona, Lord and Lady of Bizkaia and Molina, Duke and Duchess of Athens and Neopatras, Count and Countess of Roussillon and Cerdanya, Marquis and Margravine of Oristano and Gociano, with Prince Don John, our dearest and beloved firstborn son, heir to our kingdoms and lordships above. We refrain from any fraud, circumvention, lying or pretence, and we will not violate or reject them or any part of them at any time or in any way. For greater security, we and the said Prince Don John, our Son, swear before God and Saint Mary and through the words of the Holy Gospels, wherever they are written in the greatest length, and on the sign of the Cross on which we have actually placed our right hands, in the presence of the said Ruy de Sousa, Dom Joao de Sousa and dismissed Ayres de Almada, ambassadors and representatives of the said very joyful King of Portugal, our brother, in order to preserve, observe and accomplish it and every part of it, insofar as it is incumbent upon us, truly and effectively, as said above, for ourselves and for our heirs and successors, and for our said kingdoms and dominions and the subjects and natives thereof, by virtue of the penalties and obligations, commitments and swear words set forth in the Agreement and the Concordant Treaty written above. For certification and confirmation, we sign our name on this letter and order it to be sealed with our lead seal, which is hung from colored silk threads. Given in the city of Arevalo, on the second day of July, the year of the birth of our Lord Jesus Christ, 1494. Predictably, the granting of joint rule over the so-called “New World” to two kingdoms led to conflicts over territories that each could actually claim. To clarify this, a year later, the Treaty of Tordesillas was agreed, which established an actual dividing line on a world map. The treaty gave Portugal everything east of the line, which included most of present-day Brazil, and granted everything west of the line, including most of Central and South America, Spain.

The other side of the world was divided between Spain and Portugal a few decades later in the Treaty of Zaragoza. Treaties are agreements between and between nations. Treaties have been used to end wars, settle land disputes, and even stabilize new countries. Theoretically, the Treaty of Tordesillas and its subsequently renegotiated North-South line (commonly referred to as the papal demarcation line when it was later approved by the new Pope Julius II) divided North and South America between Spain and Portugal. In reality, most of the New World was west of the line, and so Spain ended up gaining nominal authority over much more territory than Portugal. The Treaty of Tordesillas (Tordesilhas) of 1494 was an agreement between the monarchs of Spain and Portugal to divide the world between them into two spheres of influence. The imaginary dividing line ran through the center of the Atlantic Ocean, leaving America to Spain and West Africa and everything beyond the Cape of Good Hope in Portugal. .